What are Porter’s Five Forces? Porter’s five forces of competitive position analysis were introduced in 1979 by Michael Porter. The model became public in Michael Porter’s book and soon became popular among investors. This theory aimed to assess and evaluate the competitive strength and position of a business organization. Remarkably, it bases on the theory that five forces determine the competitive attractiveness of a market. Porter’s Five Forces analyzes five competitive forces that play a part in shaping every industry. Therefore, it allows you to evaluate the weaknesses and strengths of the industry. It also helps to explain why different industries can sustain various profitability levels.
Moreover, this method allows you to determine the strength of a position that a company may look to move into. Analysts often use Five Forces Analysis to identify an industry’s structure and determine corporate strategy. Remarkably, it can apply to any segment of the economy to understand the level of competition within the industry. Moreover, it can help to enhance a firm’s long-term profitability.
Porter’s Five Forces are often used to evaluate whether new products or services have the potential to be profitable. Therefore, investors can also use it to identify areas of strength to enhance weaknesses and avoid mistakes.
Let’s see the five forces of Porter.
The first of the five forces refers to the number of rivals and their abilities. It is essential to determine how many competitors you have, who they are, and how the quality of their products and services compares with yours.
If the number of rivals is large, and they offer several similar products and services, a company’s power lessens. Meanwhile, businesses can attract customers in a competitive market with aggressive price cuts and high-impact marketing campaigns. Suppliers and buyers seek out a businesses’ competition to offer a better deal or lower costs.
Meanwhile, when competitive rivalry is low, a company has greater power to charge higher prices. Additionally, it can set the terms of deals to achieve higher sales and profits.
The Threat of New Entrants
The force of new entrants also influences a firm’s power in its market. The less time and cash resource it costs for a rival to enter a company’s market and be an effective competitor, the more an established firm’s position could be significantly weakened.
You might ask, which is better, higher or lower barriers? – In fact, the answer is straightforward – the barriers must be high.
Imagine a situation where the barriers are low. You entered the market and started some business. It became quite successful, and then many of your acquaintances and relatives will see that your company is doing well and you’re turning a profit. Therefore, more and more people will become willing to enter the market.
Eventually, all products and services will be similar, and your profit will reduce.
Remarkably, an industry with strong barriers to entry is ideal for existing firms within that industry as they would be able to charge higher prices and negotiate better terms.
Bargaining Power of Suppliers
The bargaining power of suppliers is determined by how easy it is for your suppliers to raise their prices. Moreover, it is important to know how many potential suppliers you have, how unique services or products they provide, and how much it would cost a company to switch to another supplier.
If you have more options to choose from, it is easier to switch to a cheaper option. The fewer suppliers to the industry mean that the more a business would depend on a supplier. Consequently, the supplier has more power. Therefore, it can lift input costs and push for other trade advantages. Furthermore, when there are many suppliers or low switching costs among competing suppliers, a firm can lower its input costs and raise its profits.
Bargain Power of Buyers
The ability buyers have to drive prices lower, or their power level is one of the five forces. Remarkably, it influences how many buyers a company has, how significant each customer is, how big their orders are. Moreover, it’s essential to evaluate how much it would cost a company to switch from its products and services to competitors.
A smaller and more powerful client base suggests that customers have more power to negotiate for lower prices and better agreements. A company with much smaller, independent clients will be able to charge higher prices to raise profitability. Moreover, it’s essential to note that they can often dictate terms if a company has just a few powerful buyers.
Threat of Substitution
The threat of substitution refers to the likelihood of your clients finding a different way of doing what you do. Undoubtedly, substitute goods or services that can be used in a company’s products or services pose a threat. Businesses that provide goods or services with no close substitutes will have more power to raise prices. When close substitutes are available, consumers will have the option to abandon buying a company’s product, and its power will weaken.
For instance, if you supply a novel software product that automates an important process, individuals may substitute it by doing the same process manually or outsource it. A substitution that is easy and cheap to make can reduce your profitability and weaken your position.
Understanding Porter’s Five Forces can enable a business to adjust its business strategy to use its resources better to produce higher earnings for its investors.